Human Evolution

Reading this article probably means you are sitting in-front of a laptop or a mobile device. This is an extraordinary feat that recent generations have achieved. Maybe you even think, that human are so advantaged they can ignore or even control the laws of nature. And in some cases it might even true.

You need to think though that what defines us is the genes we carry. And maybe in some cases technology has given super-human possibilities but when it comes to health, how we can thrive and feel our best we are need to obey and respect our genes. The same genes that our ancestors carried for millions of years during the human evolution and that have not changed  a sinlge bit as a result of the advantages we have made in the last few decades.

Let me invite you to a journey in the human evolution and nutrition!

Heart rate and oxygen levels

Let’s walk through what happens when your breathing stops and your brain is cut off from a sufficient oxygen supply while you sleep.

When an apnea occurs, regular respiratory function ceases. As a result, the heart kicks into high gear, thinking that the reason your body isn’t getting its proper oxygen supply is because it simply isn’t pumping blood fast enough. This is similar to what happens during strenuous exercise, and why the heart beats faster to distribute oxygen throughout your body.

But this time, you’re not exercising—you’re asleep, and you’re not breathing. The heart wants to compensate for this deficit in oxygen and pumps faster and faster, but the blood moving through your circulation is de-oxygenated and isn’t helping you out very much. At around this time, your brain’s panic mode is triggered, and it rouses you out of your sleep. This is accompanied by a burst of cortisol (stress hormone). Your pulse is spiking, you wake up and gasp for breath, and in doing so, take a big gulp of air.

Finally, your body gets the oxygen it needs, and your pulse goes down again. But the damage from this disruptive episode has already been done. Namely, your sleep has been disrupted, even if you don’t remember waking up, and your pulse has been much higher than it needs to be.

Sleep apneas can happen dozens, sometimes hundreds, of times each night. Spikes in your heart rate at that frequency isn’t healthy in the long term—these repeated episodes stress the health of your heart.

Oxygen and CO2 balance

When we breathe in, we inhale oxygen to the lungs all the way down to the alveoli. These are little air sacs where oxygen is then transferred into the blood stream via hemoglobin on the red blood cells. Oxygen is then transported via our arteries to all the organs and tissues in the body. Once it arrives at those tissues, the oxygen is released for us to use. Hemoglobin exchanges oxygen for the carbon dioxide byproduct of using the oxygen from the last trip and brings it back to the lungs for you to exhale. This is how it works when everything is functioning as it should.

As life would have it, sometimes things get turned upside down, or knocked off kilter. One very common example is the remarkably prevalent habit of breathing too much. Yes, too much. That might be breathing too fast (rate), taking in too much air (volume), or a combination of the two. When we over breathe, we blow off too much CO2, and this causes other problems.

Mouth breathing

Breathing is unhealthy and strongly correlated with many issues, like bone facial structure, sleep apnea and more. 

It also causes you to expel too much carbon dioxide from your body, which can cause fluctuations in your blood’s pH level and limit the hemoglobin from releasing oxygen into our cells. This is called the Bohr effect, which can ultimately lead to hypoxia or low blood oxygen levels that restrict blood flow to vital organs. Breathing through your mouth will make it more likely that you hyperventilate and lose oxygen!

This means that even while exercising it is better to breathe through your nose than your mouth. While it can be tempting to exhale through our mouths to cope with heavy exertion, this does us fewer favors than maintaining a proper balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Additionally, breathing through the nose allows us access to a small portion of nitric oxide that we carry into our lungs. Nitric oxide helps with maintaining the balance of our bodies. It also helps to dilate our lungs and blood vessels, while providing antibacterial properties to clear out germs and bacteria. 


  • Avoid breathing from the mouth at all costs.
  • Nasal breathing increases nitric oxide production in the sinuses, which has been linked to reduced inflammation, improved sleep, improved memory, and an overall increase in immune system function.

What can you do

Breathe less : From a holistic stand-point of view what you can do to make sure your carbon dioxide is in a good range is to breathe less! Most of us are “over breathing,” which means we inhale too much air and decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in our system. This changes our pH and can make us feel the symptoms of dysfunctional breathing.

The trick is to breathe in and out less, slower, low in the body, AND in a way that feels comfortable for your body. Don’t worry, it takes some practice and plenty of patience.  This will also help you to grow your lung capacity.

Block your mouth with a tape :  During your sleep you should always breath through the nose. The process behind mouth taping works exactly as it sounds: You literally tape your mouth shut before you go to sleep.

Exercise at a steady pace : Back off the intensity of your exercise routine until you are able to maintain the routine while breathing only through your nose. This is a different kind of training since it trains your body to become more comfortable and tolerant of holding in carbon dioxide.

Final Thoughts

  • Try to establish to always breathe through the nose to improve your sleep and your overall health.

Further Reading

  • https://www.mrjamesnestor.com/breath
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